Apakah itu Rheumatoid Arthritis?


rheumatoid arthritis affecting handsHARI ini saya ingin berkongsi satu lagi maklumat baru buat semua pembaca. Sudah lama tidak menulis tentang kesihatan. Ya, pernah dengar rheumatoid arthritis? Ha, mungkin ada yang telah biasa mendengarnya. Buat yang pertama kali menerima ungkapan ini, mari kita ambil tahu. Apa itu rheumatoid arthritis?

Penyakit ini merupakan suatu penyakit kronik pada sendi-sendi dan juga melibatkan beberapa organ-organ lain. Bahayakah penyakit ini? Baiklah, sebanyak 1-3% daripada penduduk seluruh dunia mengalami penyakit ini.

Kebarangkaliannya akan meningkat pada usia 30 sehingga 50 tahun. Wanita yang belum mengalami putus haid adalah lebih berisiko untuk mendapat penyakit ini berbanding kaum lelaki.

Apa punca penyakit ini? Punca utama penyakit ini masih belum dikenal pasti secara tepat. Namun, kebanyakan teori mengaitkannya dengan tindak balas autoimun. Genetik juga memainkan faktor penyumbang terhadap penyakit ini.

Bagaimana mahu mencirikan penyakit ini ya? Terdapat beberapa kriteria dan simptom yang boleh dikenal pasti untuk mengesahkan penyakit rheumatoid arthritis. Tanda-tanda awal ialah di mana berlakunya pembengkakan pada membran sinovial (synovial membrane) dan tisu penyambung.

Pesakit biasanya akan mengalami sakit pada tiga atau empat sendi terutamanya pada sendi-sendi tangan, kaki dan pergelangan tangan terutama pada waktu pagi, selepas bangun dari tidur. Ciri ini akan berlaku kebiasaannya pada kedua-dua belah anggota badan (symmetrical affection). Penyakit  akan berlanjutan sekurang-kurangnya kira-kira enam minggu.

Diagnosis juga boleh dilakukan dengan melakukan beberapa siri ujian. Ujian rheumatoid factor kebanyakannya didapati positif disamping meningkatnya juga nilai C-reactive protein (CRP) dan erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Sinaran x (x-ray) yang dijalankan juga mendapati berlakunya hakisan (erosions) pada sendi dan bahagian tulang yang terlibat.

x-ray ke atas pesakit normal dan pesakit rheumatoid arthritis

Macam mana pula dengan kesannya penyakit ini terhadap organ-organ lain? Ya, rheumatoid arthritis juga biasanya mengakibatkan kekeringan mata (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) disamping munculnya nodul-nodul pada bahagian anggota yang biasa dikenakan tekanan (extensor surface). Pada sesetengah kes, organ-organ lain seperti paru-paru dan jantung juga akan terlibat sama.

Baiklah, bagaimana pula dengan langkah merawatnya. Langkah paling mudah ialah banyakkan berehat. Lakukan latihan fisioterapi. Ubat-ubatan juga boleh diambil mengikut arahan doktor. Kebiasaannya ubat yang diberi ialah analgesics dan non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) bagi melegakan simptom-simptom penyakit. Kaedah pembedahan akan dilakukan selepas langkah lain seperti ubat-ubatan yang diambil tidak berkesan.

Mengikut Peter C. Lanyon, Consultant Rheumatologist, University Hospital, Queen Medical Centre Nottingham, UK, sebanyak 40% pesakit akan dikategorikan sebagai mengalami kelumpuhan atau cacat anggota dalam masa 3 tahun. 80% pula akan mengalami kelumpuhan tahap sederhana dan teruk dalam masa 20 tahun.

Selamat membaca. Semoga semua beroleh manfaat bersama.

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167 Responses to Apakah itu Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  1. Puan Ayu berkata:

    Salam,
    Saya kerap merasa kebas pada bahagian tgn dan kaki terutama selepas bgn tidur. Tetapi itu dahulu, sejak akhir2 ini (dalam 3 minggu kebelakangan ini), kebas tgn dan kaki sy semakin trk mlhn saya juga kini sering merasa ngilu pada kedua-dua belah tgn sepanjang masa dan kdg2 ia turut terasa pada bhgian lengan dan tulang belakang.Saya amat risau..sebab saya selalu mengalami stress..Rasa selepas ini saya perlu menjalani ujian darah utk memastikan adakah saya juga tergolog dalam pengidap RA.. ya Allah..Kuatkan semangatku.

  2. sofia berkata:

    salam,mak sy skrg alami penyakit ini juga.dia sering mengadu merasa kebas-kebas..selain itu,dia dah byk pergi rawatan seperti fisioterapi,rawatan islam,rawatan hospital..tapi x ada kurang sakitnya..bagaimana cara atau tindakan awal harus pesakit lakukan untuk memulihkan pesakit seperti normal…

  3. salbiah bt mat berkata:

    baru2 ini saya mendapatkan rawatan RA di MOPD taiping…ubat methotrexate yg saya ambil 6 biji seminggu dah x berkesan..dr pakar RA cadangkan saya ambik suntikan humira..tapi kosnyer amat mahal…untuk satu suntikan rm 2,000.00..oleh kerana ubat ni masih dalam percubaan suntikan akan diberikan percuma selama 6 bln..bagi sesiapa yg pernah ambik suntikan humira ni saya nak tanya, boleh hilangkah sakit RA ni..atau makin tambah teruk bila berhenti ambik suntikan? takut lepas ni saya tak mampu nak membayar kos perubatan..kata orang wang bukanlah segalanya..tapi tanpa wang bolehkan segalanya diselesaikan?

    • mie berkata:

      just want to share. saya pun pesakit RA macam2 ubat saya makan. sakitnya masih sama. tapi sekarang ni saya tengah ambil Eurobio Natural Omega Plus sakitnya kurang sikit. sebab saya baru start ambil. Salesgirl tu kata kena continue untuk 4 bulan baru dapat result yang baik. tapi saya boleh rasa perbezaan sebelum dan selepas.

  4. Azzalea Zulfa berkata:

    Assalammualaikum. Admin, bgmana langkah2 nak pulihkan sakit RA nie? boleh ke pulih 100% dan bgmana caranya?

  5. nor musfira roslan berkata:

    assalammualaikum…betul ke pyakit RA nie disebabkan makan makanan dilrang semasa berpantang…

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